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The complexity of the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect in an Al alloy at different temperatures was analyzed by modified multiscale entropy. The results show that three evolutions of entropy with scale factor, i.e., near zero, monotonically increasing and peak-shape, were observed corresponding to the smooth curves, type-A serrations and type-B/-C serrations, respectively. The scale factor at the peak was one-third of the average serration period. The sample entropy increased initially and then decreased with temperature, which was opposite to the critical strain. It is also suggested that the type-A serrations corresponded to self-organized criticality and the type-B/-C serrations corresponded to chaos through the evolutions of entropy with scale factor.

Two kinds of analytical solutions are derived through Laplace transform for the equation that governs wave-induced suspended sediment concentration with linear sediment diffusivity under two kinds of bottom boundary conditions, namely the reference concentration (Dirichlet) and pickup function (Numann), based on a variable transformation that is worked out to transform the governing equation into a modified Bessel equation. The ability of the two analytical solutions to describe the profiles of suspended sediment concentration is discussed by comparing with different experimental data. And it is demonstrated that the two analytical solutions can well describe the process of wave-induced suspended sediment concentration, including the amplitude and phase and vertical profile of sediment concentration. Furthermore, the solution with boundary condition of pickup function provides better results than that of reference concentration in terms of the phase-dependent variation of concentration.

We propose a theoretical model for spatial variations of the temperature variance

The laser-induced porous graphene (LIG) prepared in a straightforward fabrication method is presented, and its applications in stretchable strain sensors to detect the applied strain are also explored. The LIG formed on the polyimide/polydimethylsiloxane (PI/PDMS) composite exhibits a naturally high stretchability (over 30%), bypassing the transfer printing process compared to the one prepared by laser scribing on PI films. The PI/PDMS composite with LIG shows tunable mechanical and electronic performances with different PI particle concentrations in PDMS. The good cyclic stability and almost linear response of the prepared LIG's resistance with respect to tensile strain provide its access to wearable electronics. To improve the PDMS/PI composite stretchability, we designed and optimized a kirigami-inspired strain sensor with LIG on the top surface, dramatically increasing the maximum strain value that in linear response to applied strain from 3% to 79%.

In this work, a physics-informed neural network (PINN) designed specifically for analyzing digital materials is introduced. This proposed machine learning (ML) model can be trained free of ground truth data by adopting the minimum energy criteria as its loss function. Results show that our energy-based PINN reaches similar accuracy as supervised ML models. Adding a hinge loss on the Jacobian can constrain the model to avoid erroneous deformation gradient caused by the nonlinear logarithmic strain. Lastly, we discuss how the strain energy of each material element at each numerical integration point can be calculated parallelly on a GPU. The algorithm is tested on different mesh densities to evaluate its computational efficiency which scales linearly with respect to the number of nodes in the system. This work provides a foundation for encoding physical behaviors of digital materials directly into neural networks, enabling label-free learning for the design of next-generation composites.

Dislocation creep at elevated temperatures plays an important role for plastic deformation in crystalline metals. When using traditional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) to capture this process, we often need to update the forces on

We successfully perform the three-dimensional tracking in a turbulent fluid flow of small axisymmetrical particles that are neutrally-buoyant and bottom-heavy, i.e., they have a non-homogeneous mass distribution along their symmetry axis. We experimentally show how a tiny mass inhomogeneity can affect the particle orientation along the preferred vertical direction and modify its tumbling rate. The experiment is complemented by a series of simulations based on realistic Navier–Stokes turbulence and on a point-like particle model that is capable to explore the full range of parameter space characterized by the gravitational torque stability number and by the particle aspect ratio. We propose a theoretical perturbative prediction valid in the high bottom-heaviness regime that agrees well with the observed preferential orientation and tumbling rate of the particles. We also show that the heavy-tail shape of the probability distribution function of the tumbling rate is weakly affected by the bottom-heaviness of the particles.

The amplitude and frequency modulation of near-wall flow structures by the large-scale motions in outer regions is studied in turbulent channel flows. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to investigate the interactions between the near-wall motions and the large-scale flow modes of the outer regions based on two datasets from direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows at Reynolds numbers of 550 and 1000. The fluctuations in the fields

In this work we extend the method of the constrained large-eddy simulation (CLES) to simulate the turbulent flow over inhomogeneous rough walls. In the original concept of CLES, the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress is constrained so that the mean part and the fluctuation part of the SGS stress can be modelled separately to improve the accuracy of the simulation result. Here in the simulation of the rough-wall flows, we propose to interpret the extra stress terms in the CLES formulation as the roughness-induced stress so that the roughness inhomogeneity can be incorporated by modifying the formulation of the constrained SGS stress. This is examined with the simulations of the channel flow with the spanwise alternating high/low roughness strips. Then the CLES method is employed to investigate the temporal response of the turbulence to the change of the wall condition from rough to smooth. We demonstrate that the temporal development of the internal boundary layer is just similar to that in a spatial rough-to-smooth transition process, and the spanwise roughness inhomogeneity has little impact on the transition process.

Turbulent flows over rough surfaces widely exist in nature and industry. Investigating its mechanism is of theoretical and practical significance. In this work we simulate the turbulent channel flow with rough walls using large-eddy simulation with rough elements resolved using the curvilinear immersed boundary method and compare the results obtained in this work with those in the paper by Yuan and Piomelli (J. Fluid Mech. 2014), where the volume of fluid method was employed for modeling rough elements. The mean streamwise velocity profiles predicted by the two methods agree well with each other. Differences in Reynolds stresses and dispersive stresses are observed, which are attributed to the different approaches in dealing with the complex geometry of the rough surface.

A composite absorber made of a polyurethane sponge and multi-layer micro-perforated plates is presented in this study. Results from an acoustic impedance tube test show that the polyurethane sponge can exhibits higher low-frequency sound absorption in front of the micro-perforated plate, while sound absorption at medium and high-frequencies remains low. The physical mechanism behind this is that the micro-perforated plate increases the denpth cavity. If the polyurethane sponge is placed behind the micro-perforated plate, the amplitude of the original absorption peak will remain constant, but the absorption peaks will shift to lower frequencies. The reason for this phenomenon is that porous materials with low flow resistance can be approximately equivalent to fluid, which not only does not affect the resonance absorption coefficient of micro-perforated plate, but also makes the peaks move to low frequency. This study has the potential applications in the sound absorption design of composite structure.

We investigate the evolution of interfacial gravity-capillary waves propagating along the interface between two dielectric fluids under the action of a horizontal electric field. There is a uniform background flow in each layer, and the relative motion tends to induce Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. The combined effects of gravity, surface tension and electrically induced forces are all taken into account. Under the short-wave assumption, the expansion and truncation method of Dirichlet-Neumann (DN) operators is applied to derive a reduced dynamical model. When KH instability is suppressed linearly by a considerably large electric field, our numerical results reveal that in certain regions of parameter space, nonlinear symmetric traveling wave solutions can be found near the minimum phase speed. Additionally, the detailed bifurcation structures are presented together with typical wave profiles.

Nowadays, studies on the mechanism of macro-scopic nonlinear behavior of materials by accumulation of micro-scopic degradation are attracting more attention from researchers. Among numerous approaches, multiscale methods have been proved as powerful and practical approaches in predicting macro-scopic material status by averaging and homogenizing physical information from associated micro-scopic material behavior. Usually in mechanical problem, the stress, consistent material modulus, and possible material state variables are quantities in interest through the upscaling process. However, the energy-related quantities are not studied much. Some initiative work has been done in the early year including but not limited to the Hill–Mandel condition in multiscale framework, which gives that the macro-scopic elastic strain energy density can be computed by volumetric averaging of that in the micro-scale. However, in the nonlinear analysis, the energy dissipation is an important quantity to measure the degradation status. In this manuscript, two typical multiscale methods, the first-order computational homogenization (FOCH) and reduced-order homogenization (ROH), are adopted to numerically analyze a fiber-reinforced composite material with capability in material nonlinearity. With numerical experiments, it can be shown that energy dissipation is the same for both approaches.

In this paper, we propose a stable heat jet approach for accurate temperature control of the nonlinear Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta (FPU-

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The impact attenuator is an essential system in both race cars and urban vehicles. The structure of an impact attenuator serves as a safety barrier between the impacted surface and the driver in an accident. Attenuator materials tend to have a high price; thus, alternative materials were explored in the current work, i.e., used cans from food and beverage containers. The study deployed a nonlinear finite element algorithm to calculate a series of impacts on the attenuator structures. The thickness of the cans and velocity of the impact were considered as the main parameters. Analysis results concluded that the attenuator's average energy was 16,000 J for a can thickness of 1 mm. This value is more than two times the 0.5 mm thick used cans. The attenuator's new design was then matched with an attenuator regulation, and the results surpassed the standard value of 7350 J.

Impact of viscous sublayer scale roughness elements on large scale flows have not been fully understood and require high resolution 3D flow measurements to unravel. However, existing approaches fail to provide sufficient resolution for such measurements to fully resolve the sublayer. In this study, we use digital Fresnel reflection holography to capture 3D flows within the viscous sublayer at sub-viscous resolutions. The measurement highlights the presence of novel flow structures at the scale of the sublayer, with strong spanwise meandering motions, of 2-3 viscous wall units, indicating a highly unsteady and accelerating flow within. The probability distribution of accelerations shows a stretched exponential shapes characteristic of highly intermittent turbulence seen under isotropic flows. The presence of flow structures even at the scale of the sublayer, i.e., below

The behaviors of a neutrally buoyant ellipsoidal particle in vortical flow confined by a microcavity are numerically studied using the Lattice-Boltzmann method. For specific initial position, an isolated ellipsoid may develop a stable limit cycle orbit inside microcavity due to the interaction between particle and the carrier flow. It is observed that ellipsoidal particles of different shapes exhibit two different stable rotational modes depending on the initial orientation and lateral position. A prolate spheroid tends to enter a tumbling mode whereas an oblate spheroid is apt to achieve a rolling mode. The evolution of rotational velocities along the stable orbit is also analyzed for particles of defferent shapes.

In this paper, we provide exact FFT-based numerical bounds for the elastic properties of composites having arbitrary microstructures. Two bounds, an upper and a lower, are derived by considering usual variational principles based on the strain and the stress potentials. The bounds are computed by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation together with the shape coefficients which allow an exact description of the microstructure of the composite. These coefficients are the exact Fourier transform of the characteristic functions of the phases. In this study, the geometry of the microstructure is approximated by polygonals (2D objects) and by polyhedrons (3D objects) for which exact expressions of the shape coefficients are available. Various applications are presented in the paper showing the relevance of the approach. In the first benchmark example, we consider the case of a composite with fibers. The effective elastic coefficients ares derived and compared, considering the exact shape coefficient of the circular inclusion and its approximation with a polygonal. Next, the homogenized elastic coefficients are derived for a composite reinforced by 2D flower-shaped inclusions and with 3D toroidal-shaped inclusions. Finally, the method is applied to polycristals considering Voronoi tessellations for which the description with polygonals and polyhedrons becomes exact. The comparison with the original FFT method of Moulinec and Suquet is provided in order to show the relevance of these numerical bounds.

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The placement of pressure taps on the surface of the wind tunnel test model is an important means to obtain the surface pressure distribution. However, limited by space location and experimental cost, it is difficult to arrange enough pressure measuring taps on the surface of complex models to obtain complete pressure distribution information, thus it is impossible to obtain accurate lift and moment characteristics through integration. The paper proposes a refined reconstruction method of airfoil surface pressure based on compressed sensing, which can reconstruct the pressure distribution with high precision with less pressure measurement data. Tests on typical airfoil subsonic flow around flow show that the accuracy of lift and moment after the pressure integration reconstructed by 4-8 measuring points can meet the requirements of the national military standard. The algorithm is robust to noise, and provides a new idea for obtaining accurate force data from sparse surface pressure tests in engineering.

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2020, 10(6): 377 -381.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.055

At sufficiently large Reynolds numbers, turbulence is expected to exhibit scale-invariance in an intermediate ("inertial") range of wavenumbers, as shown by power law behavior of the energy spectrum and also by a constant rate of energy transfer through wavenumber. However, there is an apparent contradiction between the definition of the energy flux (i.e., the integral of the transfer spectrum) and the observed behavior of the transfer spectrum itself. This is because the transfer spectrum

2020, 10(6): 382 -389.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.056

The sophisticated structures of flapping insect wings make it challenging to study the role of wing flexibility in insect flight. In this study, a mass-spring system is used to model wing structural dynamics as a thin, flexible membrane supported by a network of veins. The vein mechanical properties can be estimated based on their diameters and the Young's modulus of cuticle. In order to analyze the effect of wing flexibility, the Young's modulus is varied to make a comparison between two different wing models that we refer to as flexible and highly flexible. The wing models are coupled with a pseudo-spectral code solving the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, allowing us to investigate the influence of wing deformation on the aerodynamic efficiency of a tethered flapping bumblebee. Compared to the bumblebee model with rigid wings, the one with flexible wings flies more efficiently, characterized by a larger lift-to-power ratio.

2020, 10(6): 390 -404.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.048

In this paper, an efficient calculation method based on discrete Fourier transformation is developed for evaluating elastic load induced elastic deformation fields of film-substrate system. Making use of 2D discrete Fourier transformation, the elastic fields induced by Hertz load is harvested in frequency domain, and the displacement and stress fields across the interface are enforced to satisfy the elasticity conditions for each Fourier modes. Given arbitrary distributed stress field at free surface plane of the three types of film-substrate systems, unique resultant elastic field within the can be harvested. Hertz load of half space, elastic film on elastic substrate, elastic film on rigid substrate system and elastic film-substrate system with three types of imperfect interface models are investigated: (1) the spring-like imperfect interface model which can be described as:

2020, 10(6): 405 -411.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.052

This study was aimed to determine the mechanical strength of composites made from

2020, 10(6): 412 -418.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.053

Curvature is one of the most important features of lipid membranes in living cells, which significantly influences the structure of lipid membranes and their interaction with proteins. Taken the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), an important protein related to the pathogenesis of type II diabetes, as an example, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the interaction between the protein and the lipid structures with varied curvatures. We found that the lipids in the high curvature membrane pack loosely with high mobility. The hIAPP initially forms H-bonds with the membrane surface that anchored the protein, and then inserts into the membrane through the hydrophobic interactions between the residues and the hydrophobic tails of the lipids. hIAPP can insert into the membrane more deeply with a larger curvature and with a stronger binding strength. Our result provided important insights into the mechanism of the membrane curvature-dependent property of proteins with molecular details.

2020, 10(6): 419 -428.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.054

Wake separation is crucial to aircraft landing safety and is an important factor in airport operational efficiency. The near-ground evolution characteristics of wake vortices form the foundation of the wake separation system design. In this study, we analysed the near-ground evolution of vortices in the wake of a domestic aircraft ARJ21 initialised by the lift-drag model using large eddy simulations based on an adaptive mesh. Evolution of wake vortices formed by the main wing, flap and horizontal tail was discussed in detail. The horizontal tail vortices are the weakest and dissipate rapidly, whereas the flap vortices are the strongest and induce the tip vortex to merge with them. The horizontal tail and flap of an ARJ21 do not significantly influence the circulation evolution, height change and movement trajectory of the wake vortices. The far-field evolution of wake vortices can therefore be analysed using the conventional wake vortex model.

2020, 10(6): 429 -437.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.057

A standing wave oscillation in a closed basin, known as a seiche, could cause destruction when its period matches the period of another wave generated by external forces such as wind, quakes, or abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure. It is due to the resonance phenomena that allow waves to have higher amplitude and greater energy, resulting in damages around the area. One condition that might restrict the resonance from occurring is when the bottom friction is present. Therefore, a modified mathematical model based on the shallow water equations will be used in this paper to investigate resonance phenomena in closed basins and to analyze the effects of bottom friction on the phenomena. The study will be conducted for several closed basin shapes. The model will be solved analytically and numerically in order to determine the natural resonant period of the basin, which is the period that can generate a resonance. The computational scheme proposed to solve the model is developed using the staggered grid finite volume method. The numerical scheme will be validated by comparing its results with the analytical solutions. As a result of the comparison, a rather excellent compatibility between the two results is achieved. Furthermore, the impacts that the friction coefficient has on the resonance phenomena are evaluated. It is observed that in the prevention of resonances, the bottom friction provides the best performance in the rectangular type while functioning the least efficient in the triangular basin. In addition, non-linearity effect as one of other factors that provide wave restriction is also considered and studied to compare its effect with the bottom friction effect on preventing resonance.

2020, 10(6): 438 -447.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.058

Sensitivity analysis in chaotic dynamical systems is a challenging task from a computational point of view. In this work, we present a numerical investigation of a novel approach, known as the space-split sensitivity or S3 algorithm. The S3 algorithm is an ergodic-averaging method to differentiate statistics in ergodic, chaotic systems, rigorously based on the theory of hyperbolic dynamics. We illustrate S3 on one-dimensional chaotic maps, revealing its computational advantage over naïve finite difference computations of the same statistical response. In addition, we provide an intuitive explanation of the key components of the S3 algorithm, including the density gradient function.

2020, 10(6): 448 -455.
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.059

An electromagnetic parametrically excited rolling pendulum energy harvester with self-tuning mechanisms subject to multi-frequency excitation is proposed and investigated in this paper. The system consists of two uncoupled rolling pendulum. The resonance frequency of each the rolling pendulum can be automatically tuned by adjusting its geometric parameters to access parametric resonance. This harvester can be used to harvest the energy at low frequency. A prototype is developed and evaluated. Its mathematical model is derived. A cam with rolling follower mechanism is employed to generate multi-frequency excitation. An experimental study is conducted to validate the proposed concept. The experimental results are confirmed by the numerical results. The harvester is successfully tuned when the angular velocity of the cam is changed from 1.149 to 1.236 Hz.

2019, 9(6): 339-352
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2019.06.001

2019, 9(4): 236-245
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2019.03.004

2020, 10(3): 141-142
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.041

2020, 10(2): 116-119
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.015

2018, 8(4): 252-256
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2018.04.006

2018, 8(5): 299-303
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2018.05.007

2020, 10(5): 327-332
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.051

2020, 10(6): 377-381
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2020.01.055

2019, 9(6): 403-408
doi: 10.1016/j.taml.2019.06.005